IPOs usually apply to established businesses that sell partial ownership shares in their company as a way to raise funds. In contrast, ICOs are used as a fundraising mechanism that allows companies to raise funds for their project in very early stages. When ICO investors purchase tokens, they are not buying any ownership in the company.
ICOs can be a viable alternative to traditional funding for tech startups. Often, new entrants struggle to secure capital without an already functional product. In the blockchain space, established firms rarely invest in projects on the merits of a white paper. What’s more, a lack of cryptocurrency regulation deters many from considering blockchain startups.
The practice isn’t just used by new startups, though. Established enterprises sometimes choose to launch a reverse ICO, which is functionally very similar to a regular ICO. In this case, a business already has a product or service and issues a token to decentralize its ecosystem. Alternatively, they might host an ICO to include a broader range of investors and raise capital for a new blockchain-based product.